The first time that the Mara Predator Conservation Programme encountered Rafiki was in early 2016, and we estimated that he was born in 2012. He was together with his brother and companion Karibu, and they were with the Marsh Breakaway pride. We named the duo the Kitchwa Tembo males, as we first sighted them in this area of the Mara Triangle. They left the Mara Triangle later that year and crossed the Mara River, ending up in the Musiara area where they took control of the Marsh pride. Here, they sired cubs with the Marsh females. In early 2017, a sub-group of the Marsh pride left the Marsh area for a spell with four cubs, two males and two females, and ventured into the Leopard Gorge area of Mara North Conservancy (MNC).